How to Write References in your Research Paper
Surely you have overcome great obstacles to finish a good research project; however, when it is time to write the paper and its references the problem continues, doesn’t it?
With this article, you can learn the most common and internationally accepted way to write the references of your research paper, the Vancouver Style that uses in-text citations and a Reference List at the end of the paper. Here are a few pertinent tips on how to write references in your research paper.
You just need to follow these recommendations:
ORDER: A number should be assigned for each reference, in the chronological order that they are cited in the research paper; this number is important because this is the order in which they should appear in the list of references. When we desire to cite during the text, the reference numbers should be inserted immediately after punctuation marks and between brackets.
For example: …in the heart. 
When the same text contains more than one cited phrases all of them should be included in the same brackets, separating the numbers by a comma.
For example: …in the stomach. [2, 8, 4]
But, if the numbers that will be cited are in sequence, you should write the first and the last number separated by a hyphen.
For example: …during the last week. [1-5]
Or you can use a combination of both types.
For example: …in the past year. [1-3, 14, 20-23]
You should remember that web references and those references that appear in tables or legends, must be included in an order of appearance too.
INCLUDE ONLY PUBLISHED DATA: Articles, clinical trials registration records, and abstracts available or published in the press and public e-print/preprint servers should be cited. However, unpublished abstracts, unpublished data, and personal communications should not be included in the final references, but you can include them in the text and write there the name of the involved researchers and the year.
In the case of unpublished data, it is necessary to request the permission of the author or the site when it is published.
CITE ALL THE AUTHORS: When many authors have contributed and co-authored the research or the published paper, the references should include them all, only after naming the third author you can add ‘et al.’ However, some journals (as Journal of Medical Genetics) require all authors list.
STRUCTURE: The structure of the reference will depend on the type of source, journal, book, and abstract/supplement.
Author Surname Initials. Title: subtitle. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
- Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
If the book has 2 to 6 authors/editors:
- Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Williamson GF, Jensen CW. Radiographic imaging for the dental team. 4th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier; 2009.
More than 6 authors/editors:
- Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008.
Chapter in a book:
- Alexander RG. Considerations in creating a beautiful smile. In: Romano R, editor. The art of the smile. London: Quintessence Publishing; 2005. p. 187-210. (You must specify the pages visited).
- Irfan A. Protocols for predictable aesthetic dental restorations [Internet]. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2006 [cited 2009 May 21]. Available from Netlibrary: http://cclsw2.vcc.ca:2048/login?url=http://www.netLibrary.com/urlapi.asp?action=summary& v=1&bookid=181691
Articles in Journals:
Journal articles can be accessed in three different ways: from the print (paper) copy; from the journal’s website; or from an online article database like Medline. So, the reference will vary according to the source. But the standard scheme is:
Author Surname Initials. The title of the article. The title of the journal abbreviated. Date of Publication: Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Numbers.
- Haas AN, de Castro GD, Moreno T, Susin C, Albandar JM, Oppermann RV, et al. Azithromycin as an adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis: 12-months randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Aug; 35(8):696-704
From a website:
- Tasdemir T, Yesilyurt C, Ceyhanli KT, Celik D, Er K. Evaluation of apical filling after root canal filling by 2 different techniques. J Can Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2009 Apr [cited 2009 Jun 14];75(3):[about 5pp.]. Available from: http://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-75/issue-3/201.html
From an article database:
Erasmus S, Luiters S, Brijlal P. Oral hygiene and dental student’s knowledge, attitude and behavior in managing HIV/AIDS patients. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2009 Jun 16];3(4):213-7. Available from Medline: http://cclsw2.vcc.ca:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db= cmedm&AN=16451310&site=ehost-live
Format of web references:
All the web links-URLs should be provided with the title of the site, the URL, and the date the date on which the publication was accessed in this format:
Author Surname Initials (if available). The title of Website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of First Publication [Date of the last update; cited date]. Available from: URL. If an author (or a group of them) can be easily associated with the web link information, his/her name should be included in the reference (this is called the website with or without author).
Website with author:
- Fehrenbach MJ. Dental hygiene education [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Fehrenbach and Associates; 2000 [updated 2009 May 2; cited 2009 Jun 15]. Available from: http://www.dhed.net/Main.html
Website without author:
- American Dental Hygienists’ Association [Internet]. Chicago: American Dental Hygienists’ Association; 2009 [cited 2009 May 30]. Available from: http://www.adha.org/
|Quick Style Guides||Comprehensive Style Guides||Other Citation Style Guides|
|APA In-text Quick Citation Guide||OWL at Purdue Research and Citation Resources||American Chemical Society ACS Style Guide (reference styles are in Part 2, chapter 14)|
|CSE Style Quick Citation Guide||Chicago Manual of Style Online||American Medical Association (AMA) Style|
|APA Style Quick Citation Guide||Cartographic Citations: A Style Guide|
|Chicago Style Quick Citation Guide||Harvard Style|
We would like to hear your opinion and inputs, as we are sure it will help researchers increase their capability to format their references in a better and lucid manner.
Please comment below, and make us all wiser.
How to cite this article: Singh AP, Tewari A. (Nov 24, 2015). How to Write References in your Research Paper. Retrieved from http://www.Pub4Sure.com/blog/ on [Month] [Day], [Year]
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